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Les "territoires salés" de l'eau du delta du Sénégal : Cartographie et pratiques de gestion de la salinité des sols dans les périmètres irrigués du Gorom-Lampsar

Abstract : The delta of the Senegal River is located in the north-west of the Sahelian zone. Its climatic, pedological and hydrological characteristics confer to it its multiple agricultural potentialities and its particular ecosystems, all organized around the water resource. This potential has been the bedrock of agricultural development policies since the colonial era, but most of these have failed. This agricultural development, through the policy of territorialisation of the resource, has generated geographical consequences, including the salinization of agricultural land which is the heart of this thesis. The salinization of soils in the deltas is a collateral damage to the establishment of an undeveloped hydraulic territory where men were brought in, wanted to set up new agricultural practices. This thesis aims to make a cartographic analysis through geostatistics and remote sensing and evaluation salinity management strategies based on the exploitation of field data. The cartographic analysis of the salinity in the irrigated perimeters of the Gorom-Lampsar made it possible first to note that the main variable which explains the salinization of the grounds is the distance to the hydraulic axis. Soil type, based on the analysis of mapping statistics, would not have any impact on soil salinization. Indeed textit Hollaldé and textit Fondé have the same salinity profiles. The age of the agricultural surfaces is confused with the typology of developments (the Wide layouts (WL) before and the Irrigated Private Perimeters (IPP) and Villagers Perimeters Irrigated (VIP) after) and is a function of the distance to the hydraulic axis. Wide Layouts closer to the resource, less salty and oldest, but have sufficient drainage to control salinity and IPP, more distant to the resource, more salty and lacking drainage. Evaluation of management practices in IPP and VIP shows that peasant populations use the same indicators and a single term to characterize the phenomena of salinity and sodicity. These farmers, despite the lack of an operational and collective irrigation management framework, implement individual salinity management practices, but require, from a management and sustainable resource management perspective, an operational framework and strategic management of irrigated perimeters.
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https://hal-univ-orleans.archives-ouvertes.fr/tel-03018309
Contributor : Ousmane Diouf <>
Submitted on : Sunday, November 22, 2020 - 12:36:47 PM
Last modification on : Monday, November 23, 2020 - 3:22:16 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-03018309, version 1

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Ousmane Diouf. Les "territoires salés" de l'eau du delta du Sénégal : Cartographie et pratiques de gestion de la salinité des sols dans les périmètres irrigués du Gorom-Lampsar. Géographie. Université d'Orléans, 2020. Français. ⟨tel-03018309⟩

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