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Journal Articles Journal of Separation Science Year : 2022

Supercritical fluid chromatography for the analysis of natural dyes: From carotenoids to flavonoids

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Abstract

Plant-derived natural dyes are used in a variety of formulated products, from food to cosmetics and pharmaceutics. In addition to their color, they also provide some bioactivity. While they are mostly analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography was also employed for several dye families, mostly for carotenoids and chlorophylls, and more recently for anthraquinones and flavonoids. These supercritical fluid chromatography methods are described in this review. Because the dyes have different structures and structural variations (polarity, isomers, etc.), the best chromatographic system to achieve their separation is not always the same. Hydrophobic stationary phases are preferred for the most hydrophobic dyes (chlorophylls and carotenoids) while polar stationary phases are preferred for the polar dyes (anthraquinones and flavonoids). Regarding the mobile phase composition, chlorophylls and carotenoids are best eluted with moderate proportions of co-solvent in CO2 (about 40%), while the most polar glycosylated flavonoids require higher proportions of co-solvent and acidic additives. Because dyes are colorful, ultraviolet-visible detection is often sufficient, while mass spectrometry offers additional structural information. Furthermore, fundamental information can also be gained through chromatographic analysis of dyes: either solubility in supercritical fluids, in view of their extraction, or retention behavior providing an understanding of stationary phase properties.
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Dates and versions

hal-03890852 , version 1 (08-12-2022)

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Eric Lesellier, Caroline West. Supercritical fluid chromatography for the analysis of natural dyes: From carotenoids to flavonoids. Journal of Separation Science, 2022, 45 (1), pp.382--393. ⟨10.1002/jssc.202100567⟩. ⟨hal-03890852⟩
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