The influence of monk equipped ponds on the quality of basin head streams, the example of water temperature in Limousin and Berry (France)

Abstract : In the centre-west regions of France, the deep water outlet system known as a “monk” is used in 13% of bodies of water. The authorities are strongly encouraging this to increase, arguing that this system would reduce pond induced warming of the hydrographical network. We have measured the water temperature in four monk equipped ponds for 13 years to such an extent that this paper draws on ananalysis of 142,200 original measurements. Compared to a surface outflow, a monk is a system which shifts the warming of the emissary water course to the end of summer and the autumn whichreduces average annual warming by about 1°C. This reduces the heating of diurnal maxima butincreases warming of the minima. A monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which has acquired its heat by mechanical convection generated by the wind, as opposed to a weir equippedpond which provides surface water warmed by insolation. In winter the monk equipped pond does not damage the thermal living conditions for Fario trout embryos and larvae under the gravel. In summer, the monk prevents night time cooling of the emissary and increases the temperature of the minima excessively for sensitive species.
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Laurent Touchart, Pascal Bartout. The influence of monk equipped ponds on the quality of basin head streams, the example of water temperature in Limousin and Berry (France). Lakes, Reservoirs and Ponds, Romanian Journal of Limnology, Romanian Limnogeographical Association, 2010, 4 (2), pp.81-108. ⟨hal-02086504⟩

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